When fire is not available (i.e., a blacksmith) the painter makes use of a mixture of hot (flammable) and cold (non-flammable) acids (usually sulfuric or caustic) to create a flame which is a very good heat source. He can control the flame by simply controlling the temperature of the ingredients, often by adding water and the heat of the fire. The amount of spray paint being applied is then controlled by a dial which is either on the tank or on the nozzle. The ratio of paints that will be applied and their temperatures are usually adjusted so that each individual piece is completely coated before beginning to spray. This means that there is no risk to the worker from over-spraying himself or a friend with paint containing a toxic, corrosive, or flammable explosive. Most modern spray painting systems have this feature.
There are two basic types of fire-resistant paints: nitrocellulose nitrate and acetate. These are highly flammable and so they are only used when there is a good reason for it.
Nitrocellulose nitrate is highly flammable and can burn to its core if exposed to even the smallest amount of heat for too long. Its chemical formula is C 4 H 4 N 8 . The reaction occurs byproducts are hydrofluoric acid which is a white hot liquid, and the very potent carcinogen C 15 H 19 . Nitrocellulose is a very stable pigment and so no new formulation needed. A single tube of nitrocellulose nitrate could be used to cover a 5 gallon tank for long-term storage. Acetate is a very flammable and acidic pigment which melts at 250 degrees Celsius. When heated over a flammable substance it burns at a higher temperature which produces a much more concentrated flame than nitrocellulose. Acetate contains volatile hydrocarbons which are very flammable. If the flames are exposed to a toxic substance (or the paint is exposed to smoke or fire) they melt rapidly. Because of that, it is never used in places that have been burned. Acetate can be washed away with cold water under a glass plate and then air dried and cured. Although it is a flammable pigment, it is flammable because it has a small amount of a volatile hydrocarbon that reacts with air to form highly flammable vapors.
How are the chemicals reacted between two liquids? Nitrocell
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